AKD sizing agent

Alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) is most common neutral/ alkaline sizing agent. It is an Internal sizing agents. Structurally, it is unsaturated lactones and it is synthesized from fatty acids. Physically it is waxy like milky emulsion chemicals. The waxy solid tiny particles (0.5–2 mm) are dispersed into water and the emulsification are stabilized by the cationic starch or another cationic polyelectrolyte stabilizer.

The reactive lactones rings of AKD can easily goes under chemical reaction. It reacts with the hydroxyl groups of cellulose and forming an ester bond (b-keto esters).

The availability and the reasonably priced of calcium carbonate makes it the popular filler material. But this filler material is unstable in acidic medium, hence the usage of neutral/alkaline sizing agent are increased.
Recent years AKD is the most extensively used reactive sizing agent in the high quality printing papers production.

Alkaline sizing agent improves surface conditions of paper. The Neutral/Alkaline Sizing Agent (AKD) also reduces paper machine breakdown and water recycling difficulties compare to Acidic sizing agent.

The function of AKD sizing agent depends on different technological parameters such as ph value of the fiber suspension, raw materials, method of drying, temperature, time etc. AKD is much less reactive than ASA; hence it is more flexible for papermakers during usages. It means that it can be add to the thick or thin stock. However the presence of PCC in the system can lessen the efficiency of the sizing agent.

It should be followed the manufacturers instruction during storage especially temperature and time since AKD is slowly hydrolyzed.

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28 Responses to AKD sizing agent

  1. Nadiah says:


    May I know where can I purchase AKD in small amount (I need less than 3 kg)? I’m doing research on paper and interested to use this chemical to manipulate the paper surface. However, no chemical company sell this in small quantity. Is it possible to get AKD from hardware stores?

    Thanks in advance!

    • Wendy says:

      Hi, this is Wendy from Weifang Greatland Chemical Co.,Ltd.

      We has been in paper chemical profession for more than 10 years, We own the largest AKD product line in China, which can produce AKD with highest purity(92%purity)and national standard purity(88% purity). hope we can support you and build business relationship on mutual benefits.

      My skype name is amethystbelle, if you need any help, just feel free to contact me.

    • Kaptan Singh Chauhan says:

      IT is not available on hardware shops you may contact to any paper mill management and request to provide as sample for research or you may contact to AKD samples they can easily provide you such small quantity as sample.’

      Kaptan Singh Chauhan

      • Mahmood MK says:

        Thank you for the advise but I am comparing AKD and ASA in sizing a paper, please how do I get these materials. I need them including Nano-TiO2. And I am facing the same problem of not getting small quantity too.

  2. upendra says:

    good artical but required more detail

  3. Ricky Gagne says:

    Can adk cause build up in head boxes and be released and cause dark spots and even holes

  4. Baramki fadl says:

    We are begging a new production of carton paper recycle board , use in shoe industry
    as insole in the shoe
    We have two different problems
    1- the finish carton paper board , absorb too much water when the shoe maker use it
    So we need to have a board that does not absorb too much water
    2- the carton board is not flexible enough and easy to broke ! Need to have it more flexible

    We want to know what we can add in the production line ? Chemical ? And where in the line , during mixing ? Or before the dryer ? ….


  5. abdelfattah says:

    Can we use AKD in production of sack kraft paper
    where this kind of paper need high quality mechanical

    many thanks

  6. PRASAD.KODURI says:

    Can we use this AKD in fiber cement Production line to make boards less porous?
    AKD is having any adverse affects with cement matrix?

  7. Adams says:

    What percentage of AKD filler is needed to apply to one tons of paper making

  8. We are a British based consultancy, specializing in paper production and testing. Please feel free to send us your questions.

  9. Mohinder Kaushal says:

    Dear Sir,
    I read this article and seems very informatics, I just want to know about the residual percentage of AKD with finished Paper & If we are doing sizing with ASA then what will be the benefits and residual of ASA in the finished paper.

    Thanks & Regards,
    M. Kaushal

    • Mahmood MK says:

      Actual I want to understand how to use AKA and ASA in sizing Kraft Paper, their % quantity in paper and other agents ad additives that are required in the processing.

      thank you

  10. Saikhul Alam Talukder says:

    Need consultancy for set up of small scalled AKD production line.

  11. Arezki Hassaine says:

    Need d’or AKD , defoamer and dyes for egg packaging production.

  12. Mosi says:

    We need AKD wax (preferably 1895). We need a supplier located in Sweden (or located in Europe having a REACH). Looking forward to hearing from potential supplier.

    • Robin Yu says:

      Hello Mosi,

      My name is Robin Yu and I work for Wilmar. We are a AKD wax manufacturer and have REACH registration in Europe. We provide AKD1840, AKD1865, AKD1895 & Liquid AKD to many countries. Please contact me by mail if you still have interest for this product. (yuhongbin@cn.wilmar-intl.com)

  13. gaurav says:

    both pac and akd which one is more better in kraft mill

  14. Kakasaheb J.Patil says:

    At what condition we face the problem of Nil sizing during ASA usage in kraft paper

  15. Abu Rayhan Khan says:

    Dear sir,
    We are a trading company in Bangladesh and looking for a supplier of AKD for paper and pulp mill in Bangladesh.

    I saw your company can supply same products and have vast experiences in this regard.
    Meantime if you have any scope to help us please confirm.

    Abu Rayhan khan.
    A.R.Trading int,L.

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